The absorption rate of testosterone propionate generates a frequent injection requirement when compared with testosterone enanthate or testosterone cypionate. It presents absorption parameters of AUC and residence time of 180-210 ng h/ml and 40-60 h, respectively.
The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors.
Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5alpha-reductase.
The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.
The administration of testosterone propionate can induce production of proteins related to male sexual development. Clinical trials have shown a decrease in plasma LH after the administration of testosterone propionate.